Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a prevalent health concern with variable recovery trajectories, necessitating reliable prognostic markers. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) emerges as a potential candidate because of its role in cellular growth, repair, and neuroprotection. However, limited studies investigate IGF-1 as a prognostic marker in mTBI patients. This study aimed to explore the correlation of IGF-1 with cognitive functions assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in mTBI patients. We analyzed data from 295 mTBI and 200 healthy control participants, assessing demographic characteristics, injury causes, and IGF-1 levels. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the WCST. Correlation analyses and regression models were used to investigate the associations between IGF-1 levels, demographic factors, and WCST scores. Significant differences were observed between mTBI and control groups in the proportion of females and average education years. Falls and traffic accidents were identified as the primary causes of mTBI. The mTBI group demonstrated worse cognitive outcomes on the WCST, except for the "Learning to Learn" index. Correlation analyses revealed significant relationships between IGF-1 levels, demographic factors, and specific WCST scores. Regression models demonstrated that IGF-1, age, and education years significantly influenced various WCST scores, suggesting their roles as potential prognostic markers for cognitive outcomes in mTBI patients. We provide valuable insights into the potential correlation of IGF-1 with cognitive functions in mTBI patients, particularly in tasks requiring cognitive flexibility and problem solving.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)751-760
Number of pages10
JournalNeurotrauma Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Nov 7 2023


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