Compounds isolated from Euonymus spraguei Hayata induce ossification through multiple pathways

Zuha Imtiyaz, Yi Tzu Lin, Ut Hang Cheong, Alagie Jassey, Hui Kang Liu, Mei Hsien Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The process of bone metabolism includes catabolism of old or mature bone and anabolism of new bone, carried out by osteoclasts and osteoblasts respectively. Any imbalance in this process results in loss of bone mass or osteoporosis. Drugs available to combat osteoporosis have certain adverse effects and are unable to improve bone formation, hence identifying new agents to fulfil these therapeutic gaps is required. To expand the scope of potential agents that enhance bone formation, we identified Euonymus spraguei Hayata as a plant material that possesses robust osteogenic potential using human osteoblast cells. We isolated three compounds, syringaresinol (1), syringin (2), and (−)-epicatechin (3), from E. spraguei. Results demonstrated that syringin (2), and (−)-epicatechin (3), increased alkaline phosphatase activity significantly up to 131.01% and 130.67%, respectively; they also elevated mineral deposition with respective values of up to 139.39% and 138.33%. In addition, 2 and 3 modulated autophagy and the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that 2 and 3 induced osteogenesis by targeting multiple pathways and therefore can be considered as potent multi-targeted drugs for bone formation against osteoporosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2227-2237
Number of pages11
JournalSaudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • (−)-Epicatechin
  • Euonymus spraguei Hayata
  • Human osteoblast cells
  • Multi-target drugs
  • Osteogenesis
  • Syringin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Compounds isolated from Euonymus spraguei Hayata induce ossification through multiple pathways'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this