Background Context: Spinal fusion surgery is a common treatment for lumbar degenerative diseases and has been associated with the long-term complication of adjacent segment disease (ASD). In recent years, the “topping-off” technique has emerged as a new surgical method, combining spinal fusion with a hybrid stabilization device (HSD) or interspinous process device (IPD) proximal to the fused vertebrae. Methods: A literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases identified eligible studies comparing topping-off implant(s) with spinal fusion surgery for lumbar degenerative diseases. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale for retrospective studies. Each outcome was analyzed using the statistical Confidence in NMA (CINeMA) 1.9.0 software. Results: 17 RCTs and retrospective studies that included 1255 participants and five interventions were identified. The topping-off implants device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM; OR = 0.235, p < 0.001), Dynesys (OR = 0.413, p < 0.001), and Coflex (OR = 0.417, p < 0.01) significantly lowered the incidence of radiographic adjacent segment degeneration (RASDeg) compared with spinal fusion surgery alone. Spinal fusion supplemented with DIAM significantly reduced the incidence of clinical adjacent segment disease (CASD) (OR = 0.358, p = 0.032). Conclusions: Spinal fusion supplemented with DIAM substantially reduced the incidence of radiographic and clinical adjacent segment disease. No significant difference was observed between the treatment comparators for reoperation due to ASD and back pain relief score.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100177
JournalNorth American Spine Society Journal
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Adjacent segment degeneration
  • Adjacent segment disease
  • Lumbar fusion
  • Network meta-analysis
  • Topping-off, hybrid dynamic fusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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