Comparable clinical outcomes with same-day versus rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Taiwan

Taiwan HIV Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: WHO has recommended same-day antiretroviral therapy (SDART) initiation since 2017; however, higher attrition rates were noted in developing countries. Methods: We included newly diagnosed people with HIV (PWH) from 2018 to 2022 at 18 hospitals around Taiwan. SDART initiation was defined as starting ART on the same day of HIV diagnosis and rapid initiation as starting ART within 14 days of diagnosis. A composite unfavorable outcome was defined as death after 30 days of diagnosis, loss to follow-up (LTFU), or virologic failure or rebound at 12 months. Results: At 12 months, PWH on SDART initiation and those on rapid ART initiation showed similar rates of engagement in care with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (87.5% vs 87.7%) and composite unfavorable outcome (7.7% vs 7.7%). PWH aged >30 years were less likely to have LTFU (aHR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.70). PWH aged >30 years (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85) and gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (GBMSM) (aHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.79) were less likely to have composite unfavorable outcomes. Conclusions: SDART and rapid ART initiation resulted in comparable clinical outcomes and viral suppression rates. PWH aged >30 years and GBMSM were less likely to have unfavorable outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Care continuum
  • Engagement in care
  • Test-and-treat
  • Virologic response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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