Clinical and virological characteristics of viral shedding in children with norovirus gastroenteritis

Chung Chan Lee, Cheng Hsun Chiu, Hao Yuan Lee, Chi Neu Tsai, Chyi Liang Chen, Shih Yen Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The correlation between the clinical manifestations and fecal viral load of norovirus (NoV) infection remains unknown. Methods: We established a SYBR® Green-based real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method to quantify NoV and then sequenced its genomes from the feces of patients admitted at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2017 to 2018. Results: NoV GII.4 Sydney (n = 21, 36.2%) and GII.P16-GII.2 (n = 19, 32.8%), the two predominant genotypes found among 58 isolates, were closely related to the Taiwan variant 2012a cluster in the VP1 region and genotypes of China strain. An increase in viral load could be observed on Day 3 following the onset of NoV infection. The viral load then declined rapidly from days 10–15 but remained high for >1 month in a severe combined immunodeficiency patient. Significantly longer shedding was found in patients with fever (p = 0.03) or infected by the GII.4 Sydney strain (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The qRT-PCR-mediated method proposed in this work could quantify the viral load in patients with NoV infection. Significant viral shedding over a period of 2 weeks in children with acute gastroenteritis and >1 month in an immunodeficient patient was observed. Significantly longer shedding could be correlated with infection by the GII.4 Sydney strain and febrile patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1188-1194
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Issue number6
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Children
  • Norovirus gastroenteritis
  • Viral shedding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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