Clinical and economic impact of a pharmacistmanaged i.v.-to-p.o. conversion service for levofloxacin in Taiwan

Yu Hsuan Yen, Hsiang Yin Chen, Wuan Jin Leu, You Meei Lin, Wan C. Shen, Kuei Ju Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: A pharmacist-managed antibiotic intravenous to oral (i.v.-top. o.) conversion program has been incorporated to minimize unnecessary i.v. antibiotic usage. This study evaluated the clinical and economical impacts of a pharmacist-directed i.v.-to-p.o. conversion program for levofloxacin in Taiwan. Methods: Data was retrospectively collected by chart review during the pre-intervention period (PIP). During the intervention proactive conversion period (PCP), pharmacists reviewed and intervened on all levofloxacin orders. The detailed reimbursements for medications and inpatient expenses from the Bureau of National Health Insurance (NHI), Taiwan were calculated. The clinical impacts during the PIP and PCP were compared with the duration of the i.v. levofloxacin therapy, total used i.v./p.o. ratio levofloxacin, and total length of hospital stay. The financial impact was compared with medication costs and total inpatient expenditures. Results: The mean length of hospital stay was significantly decreased from 27.2 days to 16.1 days (p = 0.001) after the conversion program was implemented. The i.v. over p.o. ratio for DDD was 3.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.1 ± 0.6 for PIP vs. PCP group (p = 0.032). The cost of the levofloxacin was significantly decreased ($ 568.9 ± 262.9 vs. $ 449.0 ±266.4, PIP vs. PCP, p = 0.044). The total inpatient expenditures were also significantly reduced ($ 6,096 ± 5,164.0 vs. $ 3,649.6 ± 3, 740.4, PIP vs. PCP, p = 0.017). Conclusions: The pharmacist-managed i.v.-to-p.o. conversion service not only decreased the length of hospital stays, but also produced significant cost savings, both on medication costs and the total inpatient expenditures. This represents strong evidence for implementing the i.v.-to-p.o. conversion service in Taiwan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-141
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


  • Antibiotics convertion
  • Levofloxacin
  • Pharmacist intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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