Cl1-GFP: An androgen independent metastatic tumor model for prostate cancer

Belur J. Patel, Allan J. Pantuck, Amnon Zisman, Ke Hung Tsui, Sun H. Paik, Randy Caliliw, Scott Sheriff, Lily Wu, Jean B. DeKernion, Cho Lea Tso, Arie S. Belldegrun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The mechanisms responsible for tumor progression to androgen independence in prostate cancer (CaP) remain unknown. To characterize these changes and provide a basis for rational therapeutic strategies for advanced CaP, an in vivo model from a highly aggressive androgen independent CaP cell line with distinct cellular and molecular properties was developed. Materials and Methods: An aggressive androgen-independent cell line designated CL1 was derived from a slow-growing, and androgen-dependent, parental LNCaP cell line through in-vitro androgen-deprivation and selection. CL1 was stably transfected with a green fluorescence protein gene (CL1-GFP) and orthotopically injected into SCID mice. The pathologic behavior, histology, and molecular determinants of CL1 tumor and metastases were determined and characterized by standard light and fluorescent microscopy, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Results: CL1 is an anaplastic prostate cancer cell line which demonstrates extensive local invasion and metastases to various organs that can be visualized via GFP expression. When compared with parental LNCaP cells, RT-PCR analysis of the tumor revealed an over-expression of EGFR, b-FGF, VEGF, TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, and bcl-2 and a down regulated expression of the p53, E-cadherin and PTEN. In contrast to LNCaP cells, CL1 tumors express lower levels of androgen receptor and barely detectable PSA mRNA. Conclusions: CL1-GFP represents an aggressive androgen-independent CaP tumor model derived through androgen deprivation whose pathologic development and molecular properties in animals resembles the clinical characteristics of hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Metastatic sites of CL1-GFP can be visualized with fluorescence microscopy offering a unique therapeutic model for the evaluation of drug sensitivity and other therapeutic modalities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1420-1425
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Androgen-independent
  • Metastases
  • Mice
  • Prostate cancer
  • Tumor model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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