Objective: Smoking has been associated with tuberculosis (TB); however, the effects of smoking on the effectiveness of TB treatment remain unclear. Materials and methods: Data were retrieved from case notes and interviews of subjects registered in the TB-reporting system from 2010 to 2012. Study cases were defined as subjects with TB-positive sputum cultures, whereas the controls were defined as subjects with non-TB-related pulmonary diseases. Statistical analyses included logistic regression and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: A total of 245 cases with cultures positive for TB and 114 controls with non-TB-related pulmonary diseases and negative sputum cultures were recruited. Current smokers had the highest failure rate (33%) for TB treatment, and they had the most severe pulmonary lesions based on chest X-ray grading. Current smokers had a 1.36-fold (95% confidence interval 1.03–2.36, P,0.05) higher odds ratio for cultures positive for TB compared with nonsmokers. In subjects with TB-positive cultures, current smoking was associated with an increase in treatment days required for cultures to convert from positive to negative (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.39; P,0.05). Conclusion: Longer periods of treatment may be required for TB patients who are current smokers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number168
Pages (from-to)1539-1544
Number of pages6
JournalTherapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Publication statusPublished - Oct 6 2015


  • Chest X-ray
  • Cigarette
  • Immunity
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Safety Research


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