Chronopharmacology of diuresis via metabolic profiling and key biomarker discovery of the traditional Chinese prescription Ji-Ming-San using tandem mass spectrometry in rat models

Cheng Yang Hsieh, Po Wei Tsai, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Yotaro Matsumoto, Yasutoshi Akiyama, Ching Chiung Wang, Lemmuel L. Tayo, Chia Jung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Ji-Ming-Shan (JMS) is a traditional prescription used for patients with rheumatism, tendons swelling, relief of foot pain, athlete's foot, diuresis, gout. Although many studies have investigated the active compounds in each herb, the functional mechanism behind its therapeutic effect remains unclear. Study design: Metabolic cages for sample collection. The serum components obtained from the experimental animals were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, cross-analysis using the software MetaboAnalyst and Venn diagrams were used to investigate chronopharmacology of JMS in the animal models. Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the diuretic effects of JMS and to explore their chronopharmacology involved in organ regulation through four-quarter periods from serum samples of rat models. Methods: Metabolic cages were used for collecting the urine samples and PocketChem UA PU-4010, Fuji DRI-CHEM 800 were used to examine the urine biochemical parameters. The serum components were identified through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) with a new developed method. Cross analysis, Venn diagram, MetaboAnalyst were used to investigate the key biomarker and major metabolism route with the oral administration of the drug. Result: JMS significantly changed the 6 h urine volume with no observed kidney toxicity. Urine pH value ranges from 7.0 to 7.5. The chronopharmacology of JMS diuresis activity were 0–6 and 6–12 groups. UPLC-Q-TOF analyses identified 243 metabolites which were determined in positive mode and negative mode respectively. With cross analysis in the Venn diagram, one key biomarker naringenin-7-O-glucoside has been identified. Major metabolic pathways such as 1: Glycerophospholipid metabolism, 2: Primary bile acid biosynthesis, 3: Sphingolipid metabolism, 4: Riboflavin metabolism, 5: Linoleic acid metabolism, 6: Butanoate metabolism. Conclusion: JMS significantly changed the urine output of animals in the 0–6 and 6–12 groups. No change in urine pH was observed and also kidney toxicity. A new UPLC-Q-TOF method was developed for the detection of the metabolites of JMS after oral administration. The cross analysis with Venn diagram and identified the key biomarker of JMS namely naringenin-7-O-glucoside. The results showed that six major pathways are involved in the gastrointestinal system and the liver. This study demonstrated the capability of JMS prescription in the regulation of diuresis and identified a key biomarker that is responsible for its therapeutic effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number155260
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Hesperidin
  • Ji-Ming-Shan
  • Naringenin-7-O-glucoside
  • Narirutin
  • Traditional prescription

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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