Calcium peroxide aids tyramine-alginate gel to crosslink with tyrosinase for efficient cartilage repair

Chin Chean Wong, Chu Xuan Lu, Er Chen Cho, Po Wei Lee, Nai Wen Chi, Po Yen Lin, Pei Ru Jheng, Hsin Lung Chen, Bradley W. Mansel, Yu Ming Chen, Chih Hwa Chen, Er Yuan Chuang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The innate cartilage extracellular matrix is avascular and plays a vital role in innate chondrocytes. Recapping the crucial components of the extracellular matrix in engineered organs via polymeric gels and bioinspired approaches is promising for improving the regenerative aptitude of encapsulated cartilage/chondrocytes. Conventional gel formation techniques for polymeric materials rely on employing oxidative crosslinking, which is constrained in this avascular environment. Further, poor mechanical properties limit the practical applications of polymeric gels and reduce their therapeutic efficacy. Herein, the purpose of this study was to develop a bioadhesive gel possessing dual crosslinking for engineering cartilage. Tyramine (TYR) was first chemically conjugated to the alginate (ALG) backbone to form an ALG-TYR precursor, followed by the addition of calcium peroxide (CaO2); calcium ions of CaO2 physically crosslink with ALG, and oxygen atoms of CaO2 chemically crosslink TYR with tyrosinase, thus enabling dual/enhanced crosslinking and possessing injectability. The ALG-TYR/tyrosinase/CaO2 gel system was chemically, mechanically, cellularly, and microscopically characterized. The gel system developed herein was biocompatible and showed augmented mechanical strength. The results showed, for the first time, that CaO2 supplementation preserved cell viability and enhanced the crosslinking ability, bioadhesion, mechanical strength, chondrogenesis, and stability for cartilage regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-313
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - May 31 2022


  • Calcium peroxide
  • Cartilage repair
  • Tyrosinase and alginate-tyramine precursor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • General Energy


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