Due to the mortality associated with thrombosis and its high recurrence rate, there is a need to investigate antithrombotic approaches. Noninvasive site-specific thrombolysis is a current approach being used; however, its usage is characterized by the following limitations: low targeting efficiency, poor ability to penetrate clots, rapid half-life, lack of vascular restoration mechanisms, and risk of thrombus recurrence that is comparable to that of traditional pharmacological thrombolysis agents. Therefore, it is vital to develop an alternative technique that can overcome the aforementioned limitations. To this end, a cotton-ball-shaped platelet (PLT)-mimetic self-assembly framework engineered with a phototherapeutic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) platform has been developed. This platform is capable of delivering a synthetic peptide derived from hirudin P6 (P6) to thrombus lesions, forming P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors for noninvasive site-specific thrombolysis, effective anticoagulation, and vascular restoration. Regulated by P-selectin mediation, the P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors target the thrombus site and subsequently rupture under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, achieving desirable sequential drug delivery. Furthermore, the movement ability of the P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors under NIR irradiation enables effective penetration deep into thrombus lesions, enhancing bioavailability. Biodistribution analyses have shown that the administered P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors exhibit extended circulation time and metabolic capabilities. In addition, the photothermal therapy/photoelectric therapy combination can significantly augment the effectiveness (ca. 72%) of thrombolysis. Consequently, the precisely delivered drug and the resultant phototherapeutic-driven heat-shock protein, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and inhibitory plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activities can restore vessels and effectively prevent rethrombosis. The described biomimetic P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors represent a promising option for improving the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in thrombus-related illnesses.
Original languageEnglish
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Publication statusPublished - Jul 12 2023


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