Bicalutamide (Bic), frequently used in androgen-deprivation therapy for treating prostate cancer, was demonstrated to induce multiple apoptosis and fibrosis pathways and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal mesangial cells. Whether Bic also damages the glycolytic pathway has never been cited. To investigate this, we performed an in vitro model study with mesangial cells, and at the same time, collected data from an in vivo experiment. Bic induced hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 which upregulates phosphorylated-5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and severely suppresses the rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in both the oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis pathways. Bic suppressed the oxygen consumption rate, extracellular acidification rate, and mitochondrial proton efflux rate, downregulated in vivo but upregulated in vitro glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, reduced glucose uptake, inhibited key glycolytic enzymes, including phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and upregulated hexokinase II (HKII) and lactic dehydrogenase A (LDHA). In vivo, Bic downregulated renal cubilin levels, thereby disrupting the glomerular reabsorption function. Conclusively, Bic can damage bioenergenesis from both mitochondria and glycolysis. It was suggested that long-term administration of Bic can initiate renal damage depending on the duration and dose of treatment, which requires cautious follow-up.
- Extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)
- Glycolysis and enzymes
- Oxygen consumption rate (OCR)
- Rat mesangial cell (RMC)
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