Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses of the noninvasive radial pulse and laser-Doppler signals in patients with hypertension

Ju Chi Liu, Yi Ping Hsu, Jia Cheng Zhu, Wen Rui Hao, Tsung Yeh Yang, Li Chun Sung, Pai Feng Kao, Jaulang Hwang, Hsin Hsiu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study performed beat-to-beat and spectral analyses of 20-minute skin-surface laser-Doppler-flowmetry (LDF) and radial blood-pressure-waveform (BPW) signals in order to compare the blood-flow perfusion condition and regulatory mechanisms between essential-hypertension (EHT) patients and aged-matched control subjects. Beat-to-beat LDF analyses yielded the pulse width (PW), AC-to-DC ratio (AD), and their corresponding variability indices (coefficients of variation [CVs]). The relative energy contributions (RECs) of five characteristic frequency peaks (defined as FR1-FR5) were also calculated. Spectral BPW analysis obtained the amplitude proportion (Cn) and phase angle (Pn) of each harmonic component n. PW, AD, AD_CV, and REC of FR2 were significantly smaller in the EHT group than in the control group. Regarding BPW indices, C1, C2, C4, and C5 were significantly larger and P2-P8 were significantly smaller in EHT patients than in controls. The present results indicate that BPW and LDF indices can be used to evaluate the blood-flow perfusion efficiency and microcirculatory regulatory activities in EHT. Sex differences were found, with the effects being more prominent in female patients. These findings may be partly attributable to impairment of endothelial and neural regulatory functions. The present findings might aid the development of new noninvasive methods for reducing the risk of EHT-induced damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-379
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • beat-to-beat
  • Essential hypertension
  • laser Doppler
  • pulse
  • spectral analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hematology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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