Autonomic nerve activation observed for hemodialysis patients while squeezing a soft ball

Jian Chiun Liou, Chih Wei Peng, Philippe Basset, Zhen Xi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this study, a medical grade pulse rate (PR) instrument was used to monitor hemodialysis patients, and the wearable product was applied for the 4 h observation. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) data were simultaneously collected to observe physiological phenomena in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The analyzed results of 38 patients undergoing the treatment (as sympathetic/parasympathetic balance indicators before-hemodialysis (HD), and after-HD) and autonomic nerve activation for the pulse rate (PR) measurement accompanied by squeezing a soft ball were also observed. The results prove the pulse rate measurement while squeezing the soft ball and analyze data, and we show that the analyzed results have a very concentrated normal distribution. This study presents oxygen saturation (SpO2) and continuous pulse rate distribution curves during the 4 h observation of the hemodialysis patients and we show that some patients undergoing kidney dialysis have sleep apnea. They become lethargic during dialysis and experience severe hypoxia due to intermittent respiratory arrest. Studies have confirmed that such monitoring and biofeedback designs can reduce the incidence of hypotension during dialysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9646
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2 2020


  • Hemodialysis
  • Oxygen saturation
  • Pulse rate (PR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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