Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary nonylphenol levels: A case-control study in taiwanese children

Ching Jung Yu, Jung Chieh Du, Hsien Chih Chiou, Shang Han Yang, Kai Wei Liao, Winnie Yang, Ming Yi Chung, Ling Chu Chien, Betau Hwang, Mei Lien Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Nonylphenol (NP) belongs to the family of endocrine disruptors, and it is widely used in industrial applications and is ubiquitous in daily foods. Animal studies have suggested that NP exposure might promote motor hyperactivity, likely by causing deficits in dopaminergic neurons. However, research assessing NP exposure and epidemiology studies on human populations are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the association between child NP exposure and ADHD while considering particular covariants, such as lead levels and dopamine-related gene variations. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on patients with clinically diagnosed ADHD; the Swan son, Nolan and Pelham, Fourth Revision (SNAP-IV) questionnaire was used to identify normal controls aged 4-15 years. Participants were examined for urinary NP concentrations, blood lead levels, and select single-nucleotide polymorphisms of two dopamine-related genes (D4 dopamine receptor, DRD4, and dopamine transporter, DAT1). Socio-demo-graphic variables, maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy and family medical history were obtained using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 97 children with doctor-diagnosed ADHD and 110 normal controls were enrolled. The blood lead levels in both groups were similar (1.57±0.73 vs. 1.73±0.77 pg/dL, p = 0.15). No significant difference in urinary NP concentration was found between the children with ADHD and the control subjects (4.52±3.22 pg/g cr. vs. 4.64±2.95 pg/g cr., p = 0.43). ADHD was significantly more prevalent among males in this study (male to female ratio: 5:1 for the ADHD group and 1.3:1 for the control group, p

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0149558
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General


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