Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Factors Among First-Year Elementary School Students

Hai Huu Hoang, Anh Thi Ngoc Tran, Van Hung Nguyen, Thi Thanh Binh Nguyen, Thi Anh Phuong Nguyen, Dinh Duong Le, Alfred Jatho, David Onchonga, Tuyen Van Duong, Minh Tu Nguyen, Binh Thang Tran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder commonly in children. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of ADHD and risk factors among first-year pupils in Vietnam's urban city.

Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected primary schools. Information on 525 pupils in grade 1 (ages 6 to 7 years) was collected from 525 parents/caregivers and 28 teachers. We used the Vanderbilt Assessment Scales with two separate versions for parents and teachers to screen children with ADHD symptoms.

Results: Among the total of 525 pupils, 24 (4.6%) were found to have ADHD symptom types (boy: 6.5%; girl: 2.1%). The combined ADHD type accounted for the highest proportion of 3.4%, followed by predominantly inattentive and predominantly hyperactivity type. ADHD prevalence rated by teachers was higher than those rated by parents. High agreement between parents and teachers was reported (κ > 0.6). The risk of ADHD increased in male participants (aOR=4.90, 95% CI 1.51-15.85), those having a first-degree relative with ADHD (aOR=85.2, 95% CI 1.66-4371.8), in-utero exposure to tobacco smoke (aOR=4.78, 95% CI 1.31-17.44), and prenatal alcohol drinking (aOR=8.87, 95% CI 2.29-34.42).

Conclusion: These findings suggest the importance of ADHD screening for pupils attending elementary schools, particularly those with a family history of ADHD. Public health programs should reduce prenatal exposure to the potential risk factors of ADHD (smoking and alcohol consumption).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1005
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


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