The current study was to examine the association of adequate intake of macronutrients and micronutrients with traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis patients. A clinical cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2017 on 492 hemodialysis patients aged 20 years and above, received thrice-weekly hemodialysis treatment for at least 3 months, adequate dialysis quality (equilibrated Kt/V ≥ 1.2 g/kg/d) from 7 hospital-based hemodialysis centers in Taiwan. The dietary intake was evaluated by the 3-day dietary record, and a 24-hour dietary recall. Biochemical parameters were archived from laboratory tests. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were defined by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) Clinical Practice Guidelines. The adequate dietary intake of macronutrients and micronutrients was recommended by the European Best Practice Guidelines, K/DOQI, and Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis was used. All hemodialysis patients had CVD risks, the lowest proportion of patients with adequate intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were 8.7% and 1.8%, respectively. The adequate dietary intake associated with lower likelihood of having CVD risks in hemodialysis patient by 47% to 84%, including 39% to 58% lower hypertension, 37% to 50% lower dyslipidemia, 42% to 63% diabetes mellitus, 44% to 84% lower obesity, 58% lower low calcium, 38% lower hyperparathyroidism, 47% to 64% lower hyperhomocysteinemia, and 41% to 67% lower inflammation, 63% to 74% lower hypoalbumin, 73% lower inadequate normalized protein nitrogen appearance. Adequate dietary nutrients intake may reduce the cardiovascular risks factors, in turn, to prevent the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere11306
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2018


  • cardiovascular disease
  • dietary intake
  • hemodialysis patients
  • macronutrients and micronutrients
  • traditional and nontraditional risks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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