Association of long-term indoor exposure to fine particles with pulmonary effects in Northern Taiwan

Li Te Chang, I. Jung Liu, Ta Yuan Chang, Gui Bing Hong, Lian Yu Lin, Hsiao Chi Chuang, Kin Fai Ho, Kai Jen Chuang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


An association between short-term indoor exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and acute respiratory effects has been reported. It is still unclear whether long-term indoor exposure to PM2.5 is associated with pulmonary events. This study recruited 1023 healthy adult homeworkers to conduct a prospective observational study from 2010 to 2021. Four repeated home visits per year were conducted for each participant to measure 24-hour PM2.5 and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and to collect blood samples for absolute eosinophil count (AEC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) analysis. Additionally, a questionnaire related to personal characteristics, health status and home characteristics was conducted for each participant. The mixed-effects models showed a significant association of PM2.5 with increased CEA and AEC and decreased % predicted PEFR. No significant association between low-level PM2.5 exposure (10-year mean level < 10 μg/m3) and adverse pulmonary effects was observed. The present study concluded that long-term indoor exposure to PM2.5 at a concentration higher than 10 μg/m3 was associated with adverse pulmonary effects among healthy adult homeworkers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number153097
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2022


  • Carcinoembryonic antigen
  • Eosinophil
  • Indoor exposure
  • Peak expiratory flow rate
  • PM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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