This population-based, case–control study aims to explore the relationship between prior tinnitus and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using a nationwide, population-based cohort study. We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to explore the association of CKD with tinnitus. We identified 15,314 patients aged ≥40 years old with a first-time diagnosis of CKD as the cases. We used propensity-scored matching to select 45,942 controls (1:3 ratio). We performed multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of a prior tinnitus diagnosis among the CKD group vs. the control group. Analysis showed that 770 (1.26%) out of the 61,256 sampled patients had previously diagnosed tinnitus. Chi-square testing revealed a significant difference in the rate of previously diagnosed tinnitus between cases and controls (3.86% vs. 0.93%, p < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed an OR of prior tinnitus for cases of 10.249 (95% confidence interval (CI): (8.662~12.126)) relative to controls. In adjusted analysis, cases were more likely than controls to have a prior diagnosis of tinnitus (OR = 10.970, 95% CI = 9.255~13.004, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and autoimmune disease. Our study shows that CKD patients have a higher likelihood of having suffered from tinnitus before CKD was diagnosed, but we have no data suggesting that tinnitus is a predictor of subsequent CKD. Patients diagnosed with tinnitus may benefit from proactive measures to prevent CKD and detect it early through lifestyle modifications and regular renal function examinations, regardless of CKD-related symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7524
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • chronic kidney disease
  • epidemiology
  • tinnitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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