Assessment of photodynamic inactivation against periodontal bacteria mediated by a chitosan hydrogel in a 3D gingival model

Po Chun Peng, Chien Ming Hsieh, Chueh Pin Chen, Tsuimin Tsai, Chin Tin Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D gingival model resembling the oral periodontal pocket to culture the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). The PDI efficacy of chitosan hydrogel was examined against periodontal biofilms cultured in this 3D gingival model. We found that the PDI effectiveness was limited due to leaving some of the innermost bacteria alive at the non-illuminated site. Using this 3D gingival model, we further optimized PDI procedures with various adjustments of light energy and irradiation sites. The PDI efficacy of the chitosan hydrogel against periodontal biofilms can significantly improve via four sides of irradiation. In conclusion, this study not only showed the clinical applicability of this chitosan hydrogel but also the importance of the light irradiation pattern in performing PDI for periodontal disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1821
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016


  • Chitosan hydrogel
  • Periodontal disease
  • Periodontal disease chitosan hydrogel
  • Photodynamic inactivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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