ArithmeticDesk: Computer Embedded Manipulatives for Learning Arithmetic

Hercy N. H. Cheng, Ben Chang, Yi-Chan Deng, Tak-Wai Chan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Physical manipulatives have been applied in traditional education for a long time. This paper proposes that by embedding computing power in manipulatives computers can monitor students' physical manipulations to support learning. This paper also describes the design of a digital desk prototype, called ArithmeticDesk to illustrate the vision of computer embedded manipulatives and takes learning fractions as an example. The study is an attempt to accommodate physical and virtual manipulations, as well as to eliminate the gap between traditional and computer-based learning activities. More experiments and studies will be conducted in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2005 Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education: Supporting Learning through Intelligent and Socially Informed Technology
Place of PublicationNLD
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)1586035304
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


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