Application of Design of Experiments in the Development of Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems

Chien Ming Hsieh, Ting Lun Yang, Athika Darumas Putri, Chin Tin Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Oral delivery has become the route of choice among all other types of drug administrations. However, typical chronic disease drugs are often poorly water-soluble, have low dissolution rates, and undergo first-pass metabolism, ultimately leading to low bioavailability and lack of efficacy. The lipid-based formulation offers tremendous benefits of using versatile excipients and has great compatibility with all types of dosage forms. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) promotes drug self-emulsification in a combination of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, thereby facilitating better drug solubility and absorption. The feasible preparation of SMEDDS creates a promising strategy to improve the drawbacks of lipophilic drugs administered orally. Selecting a decent mixing among these components is, therefore, of importance for successful SMEDDS. Quality by Design (QbD) brings a systematic approach to drug development, and it offers promise to significantly improve the manufacturing quality performance of SMEDDS. Furthermore, it could be benefited efficiently by conducting pre-formulation studies integrated with the statistical design of experiment (DoE). In this review, we highlight the recent findings for the development of microemulsions and SMEDDS by using DoE methods to optimize the formulations for drugs in different excipients with controllable ratios. A brief overview of DoE concepts is discussed, along with its technical benefits in improving SMEDDS formulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number283
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • design of experiments (DoE)
  • oral delivery
  • quality by design (QbD)
  • self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery


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