Gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from cottonseed oil, has been reported to possess pharmacological properties via modulation cell cycle and immune signaling pathway. However, whether gossypol has anti-inflammatory effects against phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cytokine secretion in T lymphocytes through similar mechanism remains unclear. Using the T lymphocytes Jurkat cell line, we found that PHA exposure caused dramatic increase in interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA expression as well as IL-2 secretion. All of these PHA-stimulated reactions were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by being pretreated with gossypol. However, gossypol did not show any in vitro cytotoxic effect at doses of 5–20 μM. As a possible mechanism underlying gossypol action, such as pronounced suppression IL-2 release, robust decreased PHA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase expressions was found with gossypol pretreatment, but not significant phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression. Furthermore, gossypol could suppress the Jurkat cells’ growth, which was associated with increased percentage of G1/S phase and decreased fraction of G2 phase in flow cytometry test. We conclude that gossypol exerts anti-inflammatory effects probably through partial attenuation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (phosphorylated JNK and p38) signaling and cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells.
- cell cycle
- Jurkat cell
- mitogen-activated protein kinase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy