Animal Models for Heart Transplantation Focusing on the Pathological Conditions

Horng Ta Tseng, Yi Wen Lin, Chun Yao Huang, Chun Ming Shih, Yi Ting Tsai, Chen Wei Liu, Chien Sung Tsai, Feng Yen Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiac transplant recipients face many complications due to transplant rejection. Scientists must conduct animal experiments to study disease onset mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Therefore, many animal models have been developed for research topics including immunopathology of graft rejection, immunosuppressive therapies, anastomotic techniques, and graft preservation techniques. Small experimental animals include rodents, rabbits, and guinea pigs. They have a high metabolic rate, high reproductive rate, small size for easy handling, and low cost. Additionally, they have genetically modified strains for pathological mechanisms research; however, there is a lacuna, as these research results rarely translate directly to clinical applications. Large animals, including canines, pigs, and non-human primates, have anatomical structures and physiological states that are similar to those of humans; therefore, they are often used to validate the results obtained from small animal studies and directly speculate on the feasibility of applying these results in clinical practice. Before 2023, PubMed Central® at the United States National Institute of Health’s National Library of Medicine was used for literature searches on the animal models for heart transplantation focusing on the pathological conditions. Unpublished reports and abstracts from conferences were excluded from this review article. We discussed the applications of small- and large-animal models in heart transplantation-related studies. This review article aimed to provide researchers with a complete understanding of animal models for heart transplantation by focusing on the pathological conditions created by each model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1414
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • animal models
  • heart transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Animal Models for Heart Transplantation Focusing on the Pathological Conditions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this