Androgen response element of the glycine N-methyltransferase gene is located in the coding region of its first exon

Cheng Ming Lee, Chia Hung Yen, Tsai Yu Tzeng, Yu Zen Huang, Kuan Hsien Chou, Tai Jay Chang, Yi Ming Arthur Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Androgen plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCa (prostate cancer). Previously, we identified GNMT (glycine N-methyltransferase) as a tumour susceptibility gene and characterized its promoter region. Besides, its enzymatic product-sarcosine has been recognized as a marker for prognosis of PCa. The goals of this study were to determine whether GNMT is regulated by androgen and to map its AREs (androgen response elements). Real-time PCR analyses showed that R1881, a synthetic AR (androgen receptor) agonist induced GNMT expression in AR-positive LNCaP cells, but not in AR-negative DU145 cells. In silico prediction showed that there are four putative AREs in GNMT-ARE1, ARE2 and ARE3 are located in the intron 1 and ARE4 is in the intron 2. Consensus ARE motif deduced from published AREs was used to identify the fifth ARE-ARE5 in the coding region of exon 1. Luciferase reporter assay found that only ARE5 mediated the transcriptional activation of R1881. ARE3 overlaps with a YY1 [Yin and Yang 1 (motif (CaCCATGTT, +1118/+1126)] that was further confirmed by antibody supershift and ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assays. EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and ChIP assay confirmed that AR interacts with ARE5 in vitro and in vivo. In summary, GNMT is an AR-targeted gene with its functional ARE located at +19/+33 of the first exon. These results are valuable for the study of the influence of androgen on the gene expression of GNMT especially in the pathogenesis of cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00070
Pages (from-to)761-769
Number of pages9
JournalBioscience Reports
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 7 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Androgen receptor
  • Androgen response element
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay
  • GNMT
  • Prostate cancer
  • Yin and Yang 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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