The study sought to explore if androgen receptor gene (AR) polymorphisms are associated with the risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) which is male-predominant. AR CAG and GGN repeat lengths were analyzed in 277 UC cases and 280 age and sex-matched controls by direct sequencing of leukocyte DNA. Smoking habits were obtained using a structured questionnaire interview. Relative risks were compared between groups categorized by all possible cutoffs of AR CAG and GGN repeat lengths. Men and women who had 23 and 44 (cumulative) CAG repeats had a significantly greater risk of UC, respectively (OR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.05-4.17, p = 0.036 and OR 4.95, 95% CI: 1.56-15.73, p = 0.007). Amongst males who were medium-dose cigarette smokers, those who had 23 CAG and shorter GGN (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomedical Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2008


  • Bladder neoplasms
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Tobacco
  • Trinucleotide repeats
  • Urinary tract

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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