Objective: Reducing postoperative pain following breast surgery is crucial for rapid recovery and shortening hospital stay. Ketorolac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been used as a postoperative analgesic in many surgical procedures. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of locally administered ketorolac-based analgesics in managing pain after breast surgery. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov registry for randomized control trials (RCTs) published up to September 2016. The primary outcome was pain level assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 1 and 6 hours following breast surgery. Results: We reviewed 4 RCTs with 255 patients. For meta-analysis, VAS at 1 and 6 hours of 3 similar RCTs were compared. At 1 hour, VAS scores were significantly lower in patients administered a ketorolac solution [weighted mean difference (WMD)=?2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?3.08 to ?1.00] or ketorolac-bupivacaine solution (WMD=?2.30; 95% CI, ?4.07 to ?0.54) than in controls. At 6 hours, the ketorolac-bupivacaine solution reduced VAS scores significantly (WMD= ?1.40; 95% CI, ?2.48 to ?0.32) compared with controls. However, at 1 hour, the ketorolac solution was significantly more effective than the bupivacaine solution was (WMD=?1.70; 95% CI, ?2.81 to ?0.59). Discussion: The effects of ketorolac-based analgesics vary as per the surgery and disease type. Locally administered ketorolac-based analgesics decreased postoperative pain in breast surgery patients, and the effect of local ketorolac was better than local bupivacaine. Therefore, ketorolac-based analgesics demonstrate considerable local infiltration during pain management after breast surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-584
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of Pain
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Breast surgery
  • Infiltration
  • Ketorolac
  • Local anesthesia
  • Meta-analysis
  • Postoperative pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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