A review of opportunities and challenges of chatbots in education

Gwo Jen Hwang, Ching Yi Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


This study explores the trends of chatbots in education studies by conducting a literature review to analyze relevant papers published in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journals by searching the Web of Science (WoS) database. From the analysis results, it was found that the United States, Taiwan and Hong Kong are the top three contributing countries or regions. In addition, most studies adopted quantitative methods in their research design, such as ANOVA (Analysis of variance), descriptive statistics, t test, and correlation analysis. ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance) was the most frequently adopted approach for comparing the performances or perceptions of different groups of students. From the analysis results, the greatest proportion of studies adopted guided learning, followed by no learning activities. It was determined that the studies related to chatbots in education are still in an early stage since there are few empirical studies investigating the use of effective learning designs or learning strategies with chatbots. This implies much room for conducting relevant research to drive innovative teaching in terms of improving the learning process and learning outcomes. Finally, we highlight the research gaps and suggest several directions for future research based on the findings in the present study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4099-4112
Number of pages14
JournalInteractive Learning Environments
Issue number7
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • artificial intelligence
  • Chatbot
  • chatbot in education
  • systematic review
  • trend analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications


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