A Review of On-Site Carwash Wastewater Treatment

Wen Hui Kuan, Ching Yao Hu, Li Wei Ke, Jung Ming Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, people’s environmental awareness has increased. The high density of the urban population has caused a considerable increase in the demand for car washing services, which has created large quantities of car wash wastewater. The main pollutants in car wash wastewater are detergents, dirt, oil, and grease. Untreated wastewater released into rainwater sewer systems or other water bodies may pollute the water and generate excessive bubble foams, which negatively affects urban appearance. Car washes are divided into mechanical car washes and manual or self-service car washes. In general, car washes have a small operation and scale, occupy limited land, and cannot afford wastewater treatment costs. Therefore, most car washes are not equipped with wastewater treatment facilities. Consequently, the discharge of wastewater from car washes negatively affects the water quality in the surrounding environment and results in wasteful use of water resources. This study reviewed 68 research papers on the quality, treatment techniques, treatment costs, and treatment effectiveness of car wash wastewater to provide a reference for car wash operators to contribute to the preservation of water resources. We found that there is a higher chance of recycling car wash wastewater when combing two different techniques for car wash wastewater treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5764
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • carwash
  • COD
  • NTU
  • SS
  • wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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