A novel bubble-mixture method to improve dynamic images in carbon dioxide angiography

Te I. Chang, Chih Yang Chan, Shing Kuan Su, Shoei Shen Wang, I. Hui Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To present a novel method of preparing carbon dioxide (CO2) for contrast enhancement.Technique: CO2 angiography can often produce poor image enhancement, especially in dependent vessels due to buoyancy of the gas. A new technique for premixing the CO2 gas with the patient's blood and dispersing it into the bubble mixture before injection was developed. Comparative dynamic images showed bubble-mixed CO2 angiography had less fragmentation, more even distribution, and more sustainability than the same volume of pure CO2. Conclusion: The alteration of CO2 gas toward a semiliquid form demonstrates an easy and reproducible concept to improve the dynamic image quality of traditional CO2 angiography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)564-567
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Endovascular Therapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2015


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Catheterization
  • Digital subtraction angiography
  • Endovascular techniques
  • Peripheral angiography
  • Renal insufficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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