A hot hole-programmed and low-temperature-formed SONOS flash memory

Yuan Ming Chang, Wen Luh Yang, Sheng Hsien Liu, Yu Ping Hsiao, Jia Yo Wu, Chi-Chang Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, a high-performance TixZrySizO flash memory is demonstrated using a sol-gel spin-coating method and formed under a low annealing temperature. The high-efficiency charge storage layer is formed by depositing a well-mixed solution of titanium tetrachloride, silicon tetrachloride, and zirconium tetrachloride, followed by 60 s of annealing at 600°C. The flash memory exhibits a noteworthy hot hole trapping characteristic and excellent electrical properties regarding memory window, program/erase speeds, and charge retention. At only 6-V operation, the program/erase speeds can be as fast as 120:5.2 μs with a 2-V shift, and the memory window can be up to 8 V. The retention times are extrapolated to 106 s with only 5% (at 85°C) and 10% (at 125°C) charge loss. The barrier height of the TixZrySizO film is demonstrated to be 1.15 eV for hole trapping, through the extraction of the Poole-Frenkel current. The excellent performance of the memory is attributed to high trapping sites of the low-temperature-annealed, high-κ sol-gel film.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340
JournalNanoscale Research Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Sol-gel
  • Hole trapping
  • Flash memory


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