A fully integrated nose-on-a-chip for rapid diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia

Shih Wen Chiu, Jen Huo Wang, Kwuang Han Chang, Ting Hau Chang, Chia Min Wang, Chia Lin Chang, Chen Ting Tang, Chien Fu Chen, Chung-Hung Shih, Han Wen Kuo, Li Chun Wang, Hsin Chen, Chih Cheng Hsieh, Meng Fan Chang, Yi Wen Liu, Tsan Jieh Chen, Chia Hsiang Yang, Herming Chiueh, Juyo Min Shyu, Kea Tiong Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) still lacks a rapid diagnostic strategy. This study proposes installing a nose-on-a-chip at the proximal end of an expiratory circuit of a ventilator to monitor and to detect metabolite of pneumonia in the early stage. The nose-on-a-chip was designed and fabricated in a 90-nm 1P9M CMOS technology in order to downsize the gas detection system. The chip has eight on-chip sensors, an adaptive interface, a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC), a learning kernel of continuous restricted Boltzmann machine (CRBM), and a RISC-core with low-voltage SRAM. The functionality of VAP identification was verified using clinical data. In total, 76 samples infected with pneumonia (19 Klebsiella, 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 16 Staphylococcus aureus, and 16 Candida) and 41 uninfected samples were collected as the experimental group and the control group, respectively. The results revealed a very high VAP identification rate at 94.06% for identifying healthy and infected patients. A 100% accuracy to identify the microorganisms of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida from VAP infected patients was achieved. This chip only consumes 1.27 mW at a 0.5 V supply voltage. This work provides a promising solution for the long-term unresolved rapid VAP diagnostic problem.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7001719
Pages (from-to)765-778
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Continuous restricted Boltzmann machine (CRBM)
  • Gas classification
  • Nose-on-a-chip
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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