A computer-based interactive narrative and a serious game for children with asthma:development and content validity analysis

Made Ary Sarasmita, Luh Putu Febryana Larasanty, Li Na Kuo, Kuei Ju Cheng, Shawn Hsiang-Yin Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Nonadherence to medications, failure to prevent exposure to asthma triggers, lack of knowledge about using medications, and fixed mindsets contribute to poor asthma control in children. Digital learning could provide a new strategy for improving health-related outcomes in children with asthma. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop and design a digital educational program, titled Module of Inhaler and Asthma Triggers for Children (MIRACLE), for Indonesian children with asthma. The program comprises an interactive narrative and a serious game. It was proposed to increase the understanding of asthma self-management, instruct on proper inhaler techniques, improve asthma control, and promote a growth mindset for children with asthma. Methods: Two phases of research were conducted to develop the program. In the first phase, a literature search and two rounds of the Delphi technique were conducted to obtain agreement from an expert panel regarding elements of asthma self-management and the design of interactive narratives and a serious game. The expert panel item statements were evaluated using the content validity index (CVI). In the second phase, the SERES framework, Norma Engaging Multimedia Design, and Psychological Theory of Growth Mindset were applied to create a storyline, learn objectives, and game challenges. Results: In the first phase, 40 experts were invited to participate in Delphi round 1. Forty responses were collected to generate 38 item statements that consisted of part 1, elements of asthma self-management (25 items), and part 2, design of an interactive narrative and a serious game (13 items); 38 experts were involved in Delphi round 2. In total, 24 statements in part 1 and 13 items in part 2 had item-CVI values >0.80. The average CVI was 0.9, which was considered acceptable. Four narrative plots and five game sessions were developed during the second phase. Challenges with the scenario, scoring, and feedback on asthma difficulties were designed to promote a growth mindset for learners. Conclusions: We developed a culture-specific, computer-based asthma program containing an interactive narrative and a serious game to deliver asthma self-management and promote a growth mindset among Indonesian children.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere28796
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Asthma
  • Children
  • Computer
  • Digital education
  • Interactive narrative
  • Mobile phone
  • Serious game

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


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