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Personal profile


  • 1991-1996 Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO). Postdoctoral, Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology.
  • 1974-1987 University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA). Ph.D. Philosophy of Science and Psychological Anthropology.
  • 1971-1973 Indiana University (Bloomington, IN). BA., Pre-Med.
  • 1967-1971 St. Louis University High School (St. Louis, MO).


Current Employment: Joint Appointment (Taipei Medical University and Academia Sinica)

Primary Appointments (Taipei Medical University):

  • Philosophy of Mind Chaired Professorship (August 1, 2012- )
  • Founder-Director, TMU-Shuang Ho Hospital, Brain and Consciousness Research Center (March 1, 2015- )
  • Founder-Professor, Graduate Institute of Mind, Brain, and Consciousness (August 2017-)
  • Advisor, Office of Research, Shuang Ho Hospital (August 1, 2015- )
  • Associate Director, Neuroscience Research Center (August 1, 2018- )

Secondary Appointment (Academia Sinica):

  • Research Fellow, Institute of European and American Studies (January 1, 2013-)

Associate Editor: Consciousness and Cognition (October, 2016-)


Prior Academic Employment:

  • 2014-2020 Dean, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Taipei Medical University.
  • 1985-2012 Professor in Graduate Institute of Neuroscience; Principal Investigator in Research Center for Mind, Brain, and Learning.
  • 2012-2015 (Offer declined) Associate Dean, College of Science, National Chengchi University
  • 2008-2012 Adjunct Professor: Department of Philosophy, National Chung Cheng University (Chiayi, Taiwan)
  • 2006-2008 Chief, Office of Academic Evaluation, National Chengchi University
  • 1992-2008 Adjunct Professor: Department of Philosophy, National Chengchi University
  • 1995-1996 Instructor, Washington University in St. Louis
  • 1986-1987 Instructor, University of Pittsburgh
  • 1981-1984 Visiting Research Associate, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
  • 1980 Instructor, University of Maryland
  • 1979 Instructor, Duquesne University
  • 1974-1978 Teaching and Research Fellow, University of Pittsburgh


  • 2012- Philosophy of Mind-Chaired Professorship, Taipei Medical University
  • 2021, Citizenship in Taiwan, granted by Ministry of Interior—one of very few non-native Taiwanese who have been awarded Dual Citizenship in recognition of their scientific contributions to Taiwan.
  • Performance Award, Ministry of Science and Technology, 2020-2021.
  • 2020 Outstanding Faculty Member Award, Taipei Medical University
  • 2016 Major External Research Grant Award, Taipei Medical University
  • 2014-2015 Wayne G. Basler Chair of Excellence for the Integration of the Arts, Rhetoric, and Science, Eastern Tennessee State University
  • 2014 Major External Research Grant Award, Taipei Medical University
  • 2012-2015 Distinguished Research Professorship, Institute of Neuroscience, National Chengchi University (Offer declined.)
  • 2012-2013 National Science Council Special Achievement Award
  • 2012 Excellence in Research Award, National Chengchi University (The highest award for research bestowed by National Chengchi University.)
  • 2012 National Science Council Outstanding Research Award (Taiwan National Science Council/Ministry of Science and Technology, highest award for achievement in research.)
  • 2011-2012 National Science Council Special Achievement Award
  • 2010-2011 Outstanding Research Award, National Chengchi University
  • 2007 Scholarly Research Internationalization Award, National Chengchi University
  • 2006 Innovative Course Design Award, Ministry of Education
  • 2002-2003 Outstanding Pedagogy Award, National Chengchi University
  • 1984-1985 Pacific-Cultural Foundation Fellow
  • 1982-1984 National Institute of Mental Health Fellow
  • 1981-1982 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellow
  • 1976-1978 National Defense Education Act Fellow
  • 1971-1973 Joseph and Frances Morgan-Swain Fellow
  • 1967-1971 National Honor Society

Research Interests

  • Science and Philosophy of Consciousness
  • Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Philosophy of Mind
  • Imaging Center for Integrated Body, Mind and Culture Research
  • Neurology
  • Neuroethics

Related Link


Peer-Reviewed, Published Manuscripts (2008~2022):

  • 2023 (January) Eyes-Open and Eyes-Closed Resting State Network Connectivity 
    Differences. Brain Sciences. 2023; 13(1):122.
  • 2022 (December) Breathing is coupled with voluntary initiation of mental imagery. 
    Neuroimage. 264,
  • 2022 Intrinsic neural activity predisposes susceptibility to a body illusion. Cerebral Cortex Communications 3, 1, 1-12. (Corresponding and Lead Author).
  • 2021 Depressive rumination is correlated with brain responses during self-related processing. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 46, 5, E518-E527. DOI: 10.1503/jpn.210052 (Corresponding Author)
  • 2021 (August) Spontaneous thought-related network connectivity predicts sertraline effect on major depressive disorder. Brain imaging and behavior 15, 4, 1705-1717. DOI: 10.1007/s11682-020-00364-w (1st author, equal contribution)
  • 2021 (May) From local to global and back: an exploratory study on cross-scale desynchronization in schizophrenia and its relation to thought disorders. Schizophrenia Research 231, 10-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2021.02.021
  • 2021 (February) Occipital gamma—aminobutyric acid and glutamate-glutamine alterations in major depressive disorder: An MRS study and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging (Corresponding author)
  • 2020 (December) Reactivity of intrinsic activity temporal structure to a behavioural state change is correlated with depressive symptoms. European Journal of Neuroscience 52, 12, 4840-4850. DOI: 10.1111/ejn.14858 (Corresponding and Lead Author)
  • 2020 (October) The minimal self hypothesis. Consciousness & Cognition. (Single author)
  • 2020 (July) Somebody is home. Cognitive Neuropsychology 37, 3-4, 193-196. DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2020.1738364 (Single author).
  • 2020 (April) Intrinsic brain activity of subcortical-cortical sensorimotor system and psychomotor alterations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 218, 157-165. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2020.01.009 (Corresponding Author)
  • 2020 Abnormal functional relationship of sensorimotor network with neurotransmitter-related nuclei via subcortical-cortical loops in manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 46, 1, 163-174. DOI: 1093/schbul/sbz035
  • 2019 (November 22) Temporal preparation, impulsivity and short-term memory in depression. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00258
  • 2019 (August 2) Indication of Dynamic Neurovascular Coupling from Inconsistency Between EEG and fMRI Indices Across Sleep–Wake States. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. DOI:10.1007/s41105-019-00232-1 (Corresponding author)
  • 2019 Instability of brain connectivity during nonrapid eye movement sleep reflects altered properties of information integration. Human Brain Mapping 40, 11, 3139-3410. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.24590
  • 2018 (July) Strong Circadian Rhythms in the Choroid Plexus: Implications for Sleep-Independent Brain Metabolite Clearance. Journal of experimental neuroscience 12, 1-4. DOI: 10.1177/1179069518783762
  • 2018 (June) The neurophysiological basis of the discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep during sleep onset period: an EEG-fMRI study. Sleep 41, 6, zsy056, (Corresponding author)
  • 2018 (May) Vascular-metabolic and GABAergic inhibitory correlates of neural variability modulation. A combined fMRI and PET study. Neuroscience 379, 142-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.02.041 (Corresponding author)
  • 2018 (March) Measuring Consciousness. Scientific American (Taiwan Edition) 193, 38-42. (First Author)
  • 2018 (February 15) Abnormal resting state connectivity in a substantia nigra-related striato-thalamo cortical network in a large sample of first-episode drug naïve patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 44(2):419-431. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbx067.
  • 2018 (January 13) Too fast or too slow? Time and neuronal variability in bipolar disorder—A combined theoretical and empirical investigation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 44(1):54-64. doi: (Lead Author)
  • 2017 Rationality: Constraints and Contexts, 1st Edition. London: Academic Press. (Co-edited with T. W. Hung.)
  • 2017 Rationality and its contexts. In Hung, T. W. and Lane, T. Eds. Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. London: Academic Press. pp. 3-13. (Single author)
  • 2017 Is depressive rumination rational? In Hung, T. W. and Lane, T. Eds. Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. London: Academic Press. pp. 119-143. (First and corresponding author)
  • 2017 (December 12) Switching to the rubber hand. Frontiers in Psychology—Cognitive Science. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02172. (Equal contribution and corresponding author)   
  • 2017 (October) Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is impaired in schizophrenia: A pilot study.  Schizophrenia Research 188:63-67. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.01.015. 
  • 2017 (April 2) Philosophy and Psychiatry: Problems, intersections, and new perspectives. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 16(4). (Single author)
  • 2017 Timing disownership experiences in the rubber hand illusion. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2(1) 1-14. DOI: 10.1186/s41235-016-0041-4 (First and corresponding author)
  • 2017 (January 5) Attention and memory-driven effects in action studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, pp. 48-49. doi:10.1017/S0140525X15000965, e229 (Corresponding author)
  • 2016 (July) The trajectory of self. Cell: Trends in cognitive sciences. 20, 7, 481-482. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2016.03.004 (First and corresponding author).
  • 2016 Spontaneous activity in default-mode network predicts ascription of self-relatedness to stimuli. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience 11, 4, 693-702.
  • 2016 Resting state glutamate predicts pre-stimulus alpha increase during self-relatedness—A combined EEG-MRS study on rest-self overlap. Social Neuroscience 11, 3, 249-263 DOI: 10.1080/17470919.2015.1072582 (Corresponding author)
  • 2015 Self, belonging, and conscious experience: A critique of subjectivity theories of consciousness.  In R. Gennaro, Ed. Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 103-140. DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262029346.003.0005   (Single author)
  • 2015 GABAA Receptor Deficits Predict Recovery in Patients With Disorders of
  • Consciousness: A Preliminary Multimodal [11C] Flumazenil PET and fMRI Study. Human Brain Mapping 36, 10, 3867-3877 DOI: 10.1002/hbm.22883
  • 2014 When actions feel alien: An explanatory model.  In Hung, T. W. Ed. Communicative Action.  Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 53-74. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-4585-84-2_4 (Single author)
  • 2012 Timing the rubber hand illusion: Owning the rubber hand involves substitution, not addition. Perception (Supplement), 41, 212.   
  • 2012 Toward an Explanatory Framework for Mental Ownership. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11(2): 251-286. (Single author)
  • 2011 Self-Consciousness and Immunity. The Journal of Philosophy 108, 2: 78-99. (First and corresponding author)
  • 2010 The Threshold of Wakefulness, the Experience of Control, and Theory Development.  Consciousness and Cognition 19: 1095-1096. (First Author)
  • 2010 What Subjective Experiences Determine the Perception of Falling Asleep During the Sleep Onset Period? Consciousness and Cognition 19: 1084-1092.  DOI:  10.1016/j.concog.2009.12.017 (Lead Author)
  • 2010 The Ethics of False Belief. EurAmerica Vol. 40, 3: 591-633. (Single author)
  • 2010 Issues at the Intersection of Ethics, Evolution, and Neuroscience.  EurAmerica Vol. 40, 3: 519-527. (Single author)
  • 2010 Mental Ownership and Higher-Order Thought Analysis (July) 70, 3: 496-501. (First and corresponding author)
  • 2009 Higher-Order Thought and Pathological Selves: The Case of Somatoparaphrenia Analysis (October) 69: 661-668. (Corresponding author and equal contribution)
  • 2008 Higher-Order Thought and the Problem of Radical Confabulation. The Southern Journal of Philosophy XLVI (1): 69-98. (First and corresponding author)



  • National Science and Technology Council Grant, 2022-2025. Title: “Multi-dimensional measures of consciousness in Disorders of Consciousness Patients.” Grant number: 111-2410-H-038-012- . First year amount: 48,120 (USD).
  • National Defense Education Act Fellowship (USA), 1976-1978.
  • Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowship (USA), 1981-1982.
  • National Institute of Mental Health Fellowship (USA), 1982-1984. (1 F31 MH 08417-01)
  • Pacific-Cultural Foundation Fellowship, 1984-1985.
  • Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO, USA) Fellowship, 1991-1992 & 1995-1996.
  • PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2008-2011. Title:“Self and Conscious Experience.”Grant Number: 97-2410-H-004-154-MY3. Amount: 70,290 (USD).
  • PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2011-2014. Title:“Belongingness: the mental ownership theory and research program.”Grant Number: 100-2410-H-004-139-MY3. Amount: 83,419 (USD)
  • PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2013-2014. Title:“Does neural activity during reward predict self-relatedness?”Grant Number: 102-2420-H-038-002-MY2. Amount: 79, 354 (USD)
  • PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2013-2015. Title:“Self, Consciousness, and Neurophilosophy.”Grant Number: 102-2420-H-038-001-MY3. Amount: 67, 290 (USD)
  • PI—Taipei Medical University, Laboratory Start-Up Grant, 2013-2014.
  • PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2013-2016. Title: “Cultivation of Young Scholars: Philosophy of Consciousness.” Grant Number 102-2420-H-038-004-MY3. Amount: 350,290 (USD)
  • PI—Taipei Medical University, Research Team Grant (Brain and Consciousness), 2013-2015, Amount: 58,064 (USD)
  • Co-PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2014-2015. “The neurophysiological basis of consciousness transition during sleep onset period: an fMRI study.” MOST 103-2420-H-004-MY2. Amount: 72,096 (USD).
  • PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2014-2015.“Predictions of therapeutic effects of Zolpidem in disorders of consciousness patients—a multimodal imaging study.” Grant Number: MOST 103-2811-H-038 -002. Amount: 29,742 (USD).
  • PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2014-2017. Title:“An fMRI Study of Moral Judgment: The modulating effects of emotion and religious belief.” Grant Number: MOST 104-2420-H-038-001-MY3. Amount: 122,806 (USD).
  • PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2016-2017. Title:“Predicting Therapeutic Effects of Zolpidem in Disorders of Consciousness Patients.” Grant Number: MOST 105-2410-H-038-004-MY1. Amount: 33,612.903 (USD).
  • PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2016-2019. Title:“A Multi-Modal Investigation of Self-Consciousness in Major Depressive Disorder.” Grant Number: MOST 105-2632-H-038-001-MY3. Amount: 218,935 (USD).
  • PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2017-2020. Title:“Predicting Therapeutic Effects of Zolpidem in Disorders of Consciousness Patients.” Grant Number: 106-2410-H-038-003-MY3. Amount: 150,000 (USD).
  • PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2020-2021. Title: “Bilateral Parietal-Prefrontal and glutamatergic activity in schizophrenia patients: fMRI, rsMRI, and MRS investigation.” Grant Number: 109-2410-H-038-009. Amount: 33,460 (USD).


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