Supplementary Material for: Prevalence of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Risk of Pneumonia, Malnutrition, and Mortality in Adults Aged 60 Years and Older: A Meta-Analysis

  • Kondwani Joseph Banda (Contributor)
  • Hsin Chu (Contributor)
  • Ruey Chen (Contributor)
  • Xiao Linda Kang (Contributor)
  • Hsiu Ju Jen (Contributor)
  • Doresses Liu (Contributor)
  • Kuei-Ru Chou (Contributor)



<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a serious health condition associated with poor survival and quality of life in adults aged 60 years and older. Comprehensive assessment and management of OD could lead to better and improved health outcomes for older adults. Therefore, we performed the first meta-analysis to determine the pooled prevalence of OD and risk of pneumonia, malnutrition, and mortality. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Databases including Ovid-MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched up to January 2021. Data analysis was conducted using logistic-normal for prevalence rate and DerSimonian-Lard random-effects models for outcomes and associated factors of OD, providing odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The pooled prevalence of OD in 39 studies with 31,488 participants was 46% associated with higher pooled OR for risk of pneumonia 2.07 (95% CI, 1.58–2.72), malnutrition 2.21 (95% CI, 1.43–3.41), and mortality 2.73 (95% CI, 1.62–4.60). Geriatric syndromes including fecal incontinence 6.84 (4.955–9.44), immobility syndrome 6.06 (5.28–6.96), pressure ulcers 4.02 (2.46–6.56), sarcopenia 3.10 (1.89–5.09), urinary incontinence 2.75 (1.81–4.19), frailty 2.66 (1.16–6.13), delirium 2.23 (1.73–2.87), and falls 1.47 (1.19–1.81) and comorbidities including dementia 3.69 (2.36–5.78) and stroke 1.92 (1.47–2.52) were associated with OD. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Early identification and management of OD should consider geriatric syndromes and neurogenic comorbidities to prevent malnutrition and pneumonia and reduce mortality in adults aged 60 years and older.
Date made available2021
PublisherKarger Publishers

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